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Components of Blood

Blood is a fluid connective tissue that is made out of red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma and platelets. The cells are pictured below. Each cell has a different function.

Red Blood Cells
Red Blood Cells or RBC are the cells that carry the oxygen. RBC have hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein that gives the blood its red color and carries the oxygen. RBC are made in the bone marrow, they do not have nucleus, wich allows them to carry more oxygen.

White Blood Cells
White Blood Cells or WBC are the cells that defend the body against bacteria and viruses. Most WBC are made in the bone marrow and the other in the lymphatic system. WBC have a nucleus. There are three types of WBC wich are listed below.
 
 
Name
 
 
Function
 
 
Neutrophils
 
 
Swallows bacteria and parasites.
 
 
Macrophages
 
 
Swallow and destroy old dying cells, bacteria, and viruses.
 
 
Lymphocytes
 
 
Fight infections caused by viruses and bacteria.
 
 

Plasma
Plasma is the fluid part of the blood. It is 90% water and 10% dissolved proteins and hormones. Blood is made up mostly from plasma.

Platelets
Platelets are not cells but they are very important for blood cloting. When a vessel gets cut the platelets stick to the injured area and release chemicals that make RBC to form a web to stop the blood from coming out.
 
Blood types
There are four blood types; A, B, AB, O. The type of each blood describes the antigens and antibodies that the blood has in its RBC. The description of each type is listed below.

Type
 
Antigens
 
 
Antibodies
 
 
A A B
B B A
AB AB NONE
O NONE A and B
 
 Antigens
They are cells like bacteria.
Antibodies
They are the cells that attack the bacteria.
Universal donor and recipent
A person with Type O blood is an universal donor because they can donate blood to anyone because it does not have antigens so the antibodies of the other blood would not attack. A person with Type AB blood is an universal recipent because they do not have antibodies so they antigens of the blood that is being transfussioning would not be attacked.
The Rhesus Factor
The rhesus factor is an antigen that determines if your blood is positive or negative. If you have the Rhesus factor your blood is posituve and if you do not have it your blood is negative 

Blood Diseases

Blood Diseases involve red blood cells, or erythrocytes, which are the most common type of blood cell. Blood diseases can also reach white blood cells and platelets. Many blood diseases are genetic, however, a person can also get them by not eating properly, poor nutrition, and not having all the nutrients the body need.  One of the most common diseases is Anemia, a condition that develops when the blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin. Among other blood deceases, we can name Sickle-cells Anemia, Blood cancer and Hemophilia.
Anemia

This decease occurs when there is not enough hemoglobin in the blood to carry oxygen to the body cells. Anemia leads to a lack of oxygen in organs. This disease can be caused by a loss of blood from a bleeding wound or a slow leak of blood and also the destructions of red blood cell or a lack of red blood cells. People with anemia, generally, feel tired, light headed, they also may have poor concentration. The most common type of Anemia is due to Iron-deficiency. Anemia is more common in women.
 
Sick Cell Anemia
 
An abnormal-shaped hemoglobin causes sick Cell Anemia. The red blood cells of a person with sick cell anemia are long and curved, as result, the shape cause them to get stuck in narrow blood cells. The disease is not curable, but it can be treated with medicines and therapy. The abnormal cell cannot carry oxygen properly affecting all other organs in the human body and can get stuck in capillaries.
 
Blood cancer
 
There are two types of blood cancer: Leukemia and Lymphoma. Leukemia is a cancer of the blood or bone narrow. It characterized by abnormal production of blood cells, usually white blood cells. Lymphoma is a cancer of a part of the immune system called the lymphatic system. There are many types of lymphoma. One type is called Hodgkin disease. The rest are called non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
 
Hemophilia
 
Hemophilia is how doctors call a group of hereditary diseases that effect the ability to control blood clotting. It is usually inherited. Hemophilia most often shows up in males. If a person has hemophilia, they have little or no clotting factor. Clotting factor is a protein needed for normal blood clotting and without it; an individual may bleed for a long time after an injury or accident.
Blood pressure
 

Healthy Blood Pressure


Blood pressure occurs when circulating blood puts pressure on the walls of blood vessels. It causes abnormal beating of your heart. The systolic is the pressure of blood vessels when heart beats. This is the time when there is the highest pressure in the arteries.
 
Healthy Blood Pressure Ranges are:
 
Systolic: less than 120
Diastolic: less than 
Pressure varies with exercise, emotions, sleep, stress, nutrition or drugs. Blood pressure is measured with a sphygmomanometer
 
Hypertension
 
Hypertension Or high blood pressure is when a person blood pressure is high. Hypertension is also called a silent killer because hyper tension does not have any symptoms High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. It’s important to know if you have a high blood pressure, so it can treated before it is too late.  
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